Dismantling Disparities in Primary Immunodeficiency Care: Building Blocks to Equity


Niraj C. Patel, MD, MS
Associate Professor Division of Allergy and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC
Niraj C. Patel, MD, MS

Dr. Patel is Associate Professor of Pediatrics at Duke University Medical Center in the Division of Allergy/Immunology. He received his medical degree and completed his residency in pediatrics at the University of Louisville. After completing his residency, he went on to complete fellowship training in both Allergy and Immunology and Infectious Diseases at Texas Children’s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, TX. During this time, Dr. Patel also received a master’s degree in Clinical Investigation.

Dr. Patel is a member of the Clinical Immunology Society; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI); and Infectious Disease Society of America. He has been an author/coauthor of articles published in several peer-reviewed journals, including New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and Journal of Clinical Immunology. He currently serves as Chair of the ACAAI COVID-19 Vaccine Taskforce Committee and was awarded the ACAAI Distinguished Service Award in 2021.

Dr. Patel’s academic and clinical interests include primary immunodeficiency diseases and infections in immunocompromised hosts. He enjoys spending time with his wife, gardening, and chauffeuring his three children around town, and is a national Gold Medal Champion in Tae Kwon Do.

Antoine Azar, MD
Clinical Director, Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Director, Adult Primary Immunodeficiency Center
Associate Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
Antoine Azar, MD

Dr. Azar is currently Clinical Director for the Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and Director for the Adult Primary Immunodeficiency Center, at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Dr Azar completed his residency training in Internal Medicine, and fellowship in Allergy and Immunology, at the University of Iowa, and is board certified in Allergy and Immunology. He moved to Johns Hopkins where he founded the Center for Adult Primary Immunodeficiency, to create a multidisciplinary center for patients with PI disorders. Dr. Azar is involved in a varied of research areas, including the association of immunodeficiency with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); secondary hypogammaglobulinemia including autoimmune diseases and vasculitis; and novel treatments for the WHIM syndrome.

Dr. Azar has been named scholar of the Center of Innovative Medicine (CIM) at Johns Hopkins, has been featured in the New York Times Magazine, the Hopkins Medicine Magazine, selected in the Baltimore Magazine “Top Doctors” for the past 3 years, and nominated for the Johns Hopkins Best Consultant Physician Award.

Vivian Hernandez-Trujillo, MD
Founder, Allergy and Immunology Care Center of South Florida
Medical Director, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Nicklaus Children's Hospital
Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Herbert Wertheim School of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL
Vivian Hernandez-Trujillo, MD

Vivian Hernandez-Trujillo, MD , is a specialist in Allergy and Immunology with 18 years of experience. She has board certifications in both Pediatrics and Allergy/Immunology and is a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, and American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. Dr. Hernandez-Trujillo received her medical degree from Albany Medical College in New York and completed a pediatric residency program at Miami Children’s Hospital. She completed her fellowship in Allergy and Immunology at the University of Tennessee, Memphis, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital and Le Bonheur Children’s Medical Center.

Dr. Hernandez-Trujillo is a Clinical Professor at Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine in Miami, Florida. She has served as the Medical Director for the Division of Allergy and Immunology at Nicklaus Children’s Hospital since 2008 and is also the Program Director of the Allergy/Immunology Fellowship training program. Dr. Hernandez-Trujillo is interested in education regarding pediatric allergic disease, and she lectures nationally and internationally on the topics of pediatric food allergy, anaphylaxis, and immunodeficiency. Dr Hernandez-Trujillo serves on numerous committees for national organizations, including executive committee member of the AAP Section of Allergy and Immunology, Allergy/Immunology representative to Council of Pediatric Subspecialties for the ACAAI, and the Immune Deficiency Foundation Medical Advisory Board.

Dr Hernandez-Trujillo has served as principal investigator or co-principal investigator on a number of clinical studies on primary immunodeficiency and has presented abstracts, posters, and lectures at meetings and conferences worldwide. She has published multiple articles in respected medical journals, co-edited the first two editions of the Board Review Textbook on Allergy/Immunology, and is author of the renowned UpToDate topic of Agammaglobulinemia. Her most recent research and work has been in the areas of healthcare disparities, particularly the impact on Hispanic/Latinx patients. She was active during the COVID-19 pandemic sharing information in Spanish through efforts with the Immune Deficiency Foundation, participating in podcasts and panels about healthcare disparities in patients with primary Immunodeficiency, and collaborating with the Allergy and Asthma Network on a Webinar series for Hispanic/Latinx patients and the impact of asthma.

Ilana Jacqueline, Patient Advocate
Author of "Surviving and Thriving with an Invisible Chronic Illness"
Ilana Jacqueline, Patient Advocate

Ilana Jacqueline is the author of the book Surviving and Thriving with an Invisible Chronic Illness. She is a patient advocate and patient influencer living with Primary Immune Deficiency Disease. You can find more about her on her website, www.ilanajacqueline.com.

Statement of Need

In the United States, approximately 250,000 people have been diagnosed with a primary immunodeficiency (PI) disorder, and these patients have increased vulnerability to severe infections as well as lifelong impairment. Despite the severity of this disorder, however, there are significant disparities in diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes for patients diagnosed with PI who are from racial and ethnic underserved populations, as well as those of lower socioeconomic status.

This CME Outfitters Webcast will focus on addressing these persistent health disparities. Expert faculty will engage the audience in the development of improved skills in identifying the signs and symptoms of PI to reduce diagnostic delays, emphasize the importance of implementing consistent, guideline-directed treatment plans for all patients, and advise on the importance of effective patient-clinician communication and education.


Learning Objectives

At the end of this CME/CE activity, participants should be able to:

  • Identify signs and symptoms of PI to decrease diagnostic delays, especially in underserved populations.
  • Implement evidence-based treatment strategies to optimize PI management.
  • Educate and inform patients (and clinicians) about PI from the patient’s perspective.

Financial Support

Supported by an educational grant from Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.

Target Audience

Physicians, nurse practitioners (NPs), physician associates (PAs), infusion nurses, pharmacists, or other clinicians in primary care, as well as any clinician who manages or treats patients with PI

Credit Information

Jointly Accredited Provider

In support of improving patient care, CME Outfitters, LLC, is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

Interprofessional (IPCE) 1.0

This activity was planned by and for the healthcare team, and learners will receive 1.0 Interprofessional Continuing Education (IPCE) Credit for learning and change.

Physicians (ACCME) 1.0

CME Outfitters, LLC, designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Nurses (ANCC) 1.0

This activity is designated for 1.0 contact hour.

Note for California Nurses

This continuing nursing education activity was approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing. CME Outfitters, LLC’s provider number is CEP15510.

Pharmacists (ACPE) 1.0

This application-based activity is approved for 1.0 contact hour (0.10 CEUs) of continuing pharmacy credit.
Activity UAN: JA0007185-0000-23-011-H01-P

PAs (AAPA) 1.0

CME Outfitters, LLC, has been authorized by the American Academy of PAs (AAPA) to award AAPA Category 1 CME credit for activities planned in accordance with AAPA CME Criteria. This activity is designated for 1.0 AAPA Category 1 CME credits. Approval is valid until the expiration date listed above. PAs should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation.


Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 1.0 medical knowledge MOC point in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit.

MIPS Improvement Activity

Completion of this accredited CME activity meets the expectations of an Accredited Safety or Quality Improvement Program (IA_PSPA_28) for the Merit-based Incentive Payment Program (MIPS). Clinicians should submit their improvement activities by attestation via the CMS Quality Payment Program website.

Royal College MOC

Through an agreement between the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, medical practitioners participating in the Royal College MOC Program may record completion of accredited activities registered under the ACCME’s “CME in Support of MOC” program in Section 3 of the Royal College’s MOC Program.

Disclosure Declaration

It is the policy of CME Outfitters, LLC, to ensure independence, balance, objectivity, and scientific rigor and integrity in all of their CE activities. Faculty must disclose to the participants any relationships with commercial companies whose products or devices may be mentioned in faculty presentations, or with the commercial supporter of this CE activity. CME Outfitters, LLC, has evaluated, identified, and attempted to resolve any potential conflicts of interest through a rigorous content validation procedure, use of evidence-based data/research, and a multidisciplinary peer review process. The following information is for participant information only. It is not assumed that these relationships will have a negative impact on the presentations.

Dr. Patel reports the following financial relationships: Advisory Board: CSL Behring; Horizon Therapeutics; and Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc. Consultant: Horizon Therapeutics. Grants: CSL Behring. Research Support: CSL Behring and Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.

Dr. Azar reports the following financial relationships: Advisory Board: Grifols and Opinose. Consultant: Argenx and Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc. Grants and Research Support: Argenx; Grifols; and X4 Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Speakers Bureau: ADMA Biologics, Inc. and Grifols

Dr. Hernandez-Trujillo reports the following financial relationships: Advisory Board: Aimmune Therapeutics; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc.; Sanofi; Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.; and US WorldMeds. Consultant: Amgen Inc.; CSL; Kaleo, Inc.; National Peanut Board; Pharming; and Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc. Grants: Immune Deficiency Foundation. Speakers Bureau: CSL Behring and Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc

Ms. Jacqueline reports no financial relationships to disclose.

The following CME Outfitters peer reviewer and staff have no financial relationships:

  • Elizabeth Naber, MSN, RN, CCRN-K, CNRN, TCRN (peer reviewer)
  • Morgan Stockberger, MD (planning committee)
  • Warren Beckman (planning committee)
  • Susan H. Yarbrough, CHCP (planning committee)
  • Sandra Caballero, PharmD (planning committee)
  • Sharon Tordoff (planning committee)

Faculty of this CE activity may include discussions of products or devices that are not currently labeled for use by the FDA. The faculty have been informed of their responsibility to disclose to the audience if they will be discussing off-label or investigational uses (any uses not approved by the FDA) of products or devices.

Obtaining Credits

Post-tests, credit request forms, and activity evaluations must be completed online (requires free account activation), and participants can print their certificate or statement of credit immediately (75% pass rate required). This website supports all browsers except Internet Explorer for Mac. For complete technical requirements and privacy policy, visit our Privacy & Confidentiality page.


NOTE: Pharmacist ACPE UAN, Enduring: JA0007185-0000-23-011-H01-P

Questions about this activity?

Call us at (877) CME-PROS or (877) 263-7767.


Dismantling Disparities in Primary Immunodeficiency Care: Building Blocks to Equity
Event Date: 01/30/2023