Breaking Down the Barrier of HIV-Related Stigma: Health Care Disparities and Unconscious Bias

This activity is part of a series


Dan Scales, PharmD, AAHIVP
Director of Pharmacy Collaborative Care, Vivent Health, Denver, CO
Dan Scales, PharmD, AAHIVP

Dan Scales currently works as the Director of Pharmacy Collaborative Care at Vivent Health, overseeing clinical pharmacy and experiential education. Prior to merging with Vivent he owned and operated Scales Pharmacy, an HIV focused and sex-positive independent pharmacy in Denver, CO. Through his time at his own independent pharmacy and continuing as a part of Vivent Health, Dan Scales has pursued legislative and operational reform of pharmacy practice aiming to reduce disparities in health care by increasing access to pharmacy services. He is specifically interested in LGBTQIA rights and a harm reduction approach to health care, advocating for increased syringe access and collaborative practice reform to increase access to naloxone as well as pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis of HIV. Dan Scales has also spent time as a member of various nonprofit Boards of Directors, previously chaired Colorado’s Medical Assistance and Service Advisory Board, currently co-chairs Denver’s Fast Track Cities Initiative, and sits on Colorado’s State Drug Assistance Program Medical Advisory Board.

Christina M. Madison, PharmD, FCCP, AAHIVP
Founder and CEO, The Public Health Pharmacist, PLLC
Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice, Roseman University of Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Las Vegas, NV
Christina M. Madison, PharmD, FCCP, AAHIVP

Christina Madison, PharmD, FCCP, AAHIVP, is the Founder and CEO of The Public Health Pharmacist, PLLC, a public health consulting firm. She is also an Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice with Roseman University of Health Sciences and works as a clinical pharmacist specializing in public health with a focus on infectious communicable diseases. Dr. Madison maintains two active practice sites with Huntridge Family Clinic and Volunteers in Medicine of Southern Nevada (VMSN). She has been caring for those affected and infected with HIV for over 15 years in the Las Vegas Metropolitan area and has been credentialed with the American Academy of HIV Medicine since 2013. A trusted and valued health care professional who has been asked to share her clinical public health and infectious disease expertise with local, state, and international media outlets and non-governmental organizations.

Since January 2020, Dr. Madison has been featured in over 250+ on-air television appearances related to the pandemic and public health. Advocating for public health and the profession of pharmacy to improve the health and wellness of vulnerable populations and the underserved is her passion and mission.

Statement of Need

Despite remarkable advances in HIV treatment and prevention, HIV continues to spread at epidemic levels in the United States. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains underutilized, with large rates of gender identity and race/ethnicity prescribing disparities. The 2021-2025 HIV National Strategic Plan identified HIV-related stigma in health care as a primary barrier hindering patients from seeking HIV prevention services. As part of the health care team, pharmacists need to recognize these inadvertent behaviors and ideologies, such as homophobia, transphobia, racism, and negative views of lifestyle choices, that impede initiation of PrEP and HIV prevention strategies.

In part 1 of this CMEO podcast series, Breaking Down the Barrier of HIV-Related Stigma: Health Care Disparities and Unconscious Bias, join Drs. Dan Scales and Christina Madison as they discuss how pharmacists can overcome implicit bias in health care and support equitable PrEP access for all patients.

Learning Objectives

At the end of this CME/CE activity, participants should be able to recognize health care disparities and unconscious bias associated with HIV-related stigma in reference to race, gender, and identity.

Financial Support

Supported by an educational grant from Gilead Sciences, Inc. This educational activity is supported by an independent educational grant from ViiV Healthcare. ViiV Healthcare was not involved in the developmental content or selection of faculty for this educational activity.

Target Audience


Credit Information

Jointly Accredited Provider

In support of improving patient care, CME Outfitters, LLC, is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

Pharmacists/Pharmacy Tech (ACPE) 0.75

This application-based activity is approved for 0.75 contact hour (0.075 CEUs) of continuing pharmacy credit.
UAN: JA0007185-0000-22-053-H04-P

Disclosure Declaration

It is the policy of CME Outfitters, LLC, to ensure independence, balance, objectivity, and scientific rigor and integrity in all of their CE activities. Faculty must disclose to the participants any relationships with commercial companies whose products or devices may be mentioned in faculty presentations, or with the commercial supporter of this CE activity. CME Outfitters, LLC, has evaluated, identified, and mitigated any potential conflicts of interest through a rigorous content validation procedure, use of evidence-based data/research, and a multidisciplinary peer review process.

Dr. Scales reports no financial relationships.

Dr. Madison reports the following financial relationships: Speakers Bureau: Gilead Sciences, Inc. and Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

The following peer reviewer and CME Outfitters Staff have no financial relationships:

  • Michael Franks, APRN, AGACNP-BC, FNP-BC (peer reviewer)
  • Kellie Busby, PharmD (planning committee)
  • Julie Strickland, PharmD (planning committee)
  • Susan Perry (planning committee)
  • Susan H. Yarbrough, CHCP (planning committee)
  • Sharon Tordoff (planning committee)

Faculty of this CE activity may include discussions of products or devices that are not currently labeled for use by the FDA. The faculty have been informed of their responsibility to disclose to the audience if they will be discussing off-label or investigational uses (any uses not approved by the FDA) of products or devices.

Obtaining Credits

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Questions about this activity?

Call us at (877) CME-PROS or (877) 263-7767.



Breaking Down the Barrier of HIV-Related Stigma: Health Care Disparities and Unconscious Bias
Event Date: 04/01/2022