When Is Switching ART Necessary?


Leandro A. Mena, MD, MPH
Chair and Professor of Population Health Science
Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
University of Mississippi Medical Center Jackson, MS
Leandro A. Mena, MD, MPH
Chair and Professor of Population Health Science

Leandro Mena, MD, MPH, is a clinician-researcher and public health advocate with expertise in the prevention and clinical management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). He is founding chair of the Department of Population Health Science at the University of Mississippi Medical Center John D. Bower School of Population Health and Professor of Medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases. Dr. Mena also directs the Center for HIV/AIDS Research, Education & Policy at the Myrlie Evers-Williams Institute for Elimination of Health Disparities and serves as the STD Medical Director for the state of Mississippi. He is the Medical Director of the Five Points Clinic (Jackson’s public STD clinic) and co-founded Open Arms Healthcare Center (first Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender [LGBT] clinic in Mississippi). In recognition of his work developing a model program of culturally competent HIV prevention and care for Black men who have sex with men, which is being replicated in other clinics around the country, he was awarded the 2016 Achievement Award by the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA). Dr. Mena is board certified in infectious diseases. He is a research fellow with the Rural Center for STD/HIV Prevention (Indiana University). His interests include understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission in racial/ethnic, gender, and sexual minorities as well as the development and provision of culturally competent quality health services to these populations.

Statement of Need

In the setting of viral suppression, there are many reasons to optimize antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, there are also factors to consider before switching or simplifying therapy, including the patient’s full treatment history and preference. After switching, it is imperative to monitor for potential side effects that could result in discontinuation, especially as long-term ART exposure contributes to the burden of renal disease.

In this CME Outfitters Briefcase, faculty will highlight a patient case that focuses on seizing opportunities to optimize and simplify treatment for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while maintaining virologic suppression, as well as best practices for engaging patients in shared decision-making so that patient preference is always considered.

Learning Objectives

At the end of this CME/CE activity, participants should be able to determine appropriate strategies for treatment switching.

The following learning objectives pertain only to those requesting CNE or CPE credit: Describe appropriate strategies for treatment switching.

Financial Support

Supported by independent educational grants from Gilead Sciences, Inc.; Merck & Co., Inc.; and ViiV Healthcare. The supporters were not involved in the development of content or the selection of faculty for this educational activity.

Target Audience

Infectious disease specialists, primary care physicians, PAs, nurse practitioners, nurses, pharmacists.

Credit Information

Physicians (ACCME) 1.0

CME Outfitters, LLC, designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Pharmacists/Pharmacy Tech (ACPE) 1.0

This application-based activity is approved for 1.0 contact hour (0.10 CEUs) of continuing pharmacy credit.
Activity UAN: 0376-0000-20-135-H01-P


Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 1.0 medical knowledge MOC point in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit.

Royal College MOC

Through an agreement between the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, medical practitioners participating in the Royal College MOC Program may record completion of accredited activities registered under the ACCME’s “CME in Support of MOC” program in Section 3 of the Royal College’s MOC Program.

Note to Nurse Practitioners

Nurse Practitioners can apply for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit through the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP). AANP will accept AMA PRA Category 1 Credit  from organizations accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. Nurse practitioners can also apply for credit through their state boards.

Disclosure Declaration

It is the policy of CME Outfitters, LLC, to ensure independence, balance, objectivity, and scientific rigor and integrity in all of their CE activities. Faculty must disclose to the participants any relationships with commercial companies whose products or devices may be mentioned in faculty presentations, or with the commercial supporter of this CE activity. CME Outfitters, LLC, has evaluated, identified, and attempted to resolve any potential conflicts of interest through a rigorous content validation procedure, use of evidence-based data/research, and a multidisciplinary peer review process. The following information is for participant information only. It is not assumed that these relationships will have a negative impact on the presentations.

Dr. Mena reports that he receives grants from Binx Health, Inc.; Click Diagnostics; Evofem Biosciences, Inc.; Gilead Sciences, Inc.; GlaxoSmithKline/ViiV Healthcare; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Merck & Co.; Prosoft Clinical; Roche Molecular Diagnostics; and SpeeDx Pty. Ltd. He is on the advisory committee for Gilead Sciences, Inc.; Merck & Co.; Roche Molecular Diagnostics; and ViiV Healthcare.

  • Jeffrey Helfand, DO (peer reviewer) has no disclosures to report.
  • Mae Ochoa, RPh (peer reviewer) has no disclosures to report.
  • Susan Perry (planning committee) has no disclosures to report.
  • Jan Perez (planning committee) has no disclosures to report.
  • Sharon Tordoff (planning committee) has no disclosures to report.
  • Disclosures were obtained from the CME Outfitters, LLC staff: No disclosures to report.

Faculty of this CE activity may include discussions of products or devices that are not currently labeled for use by the FDA. The faculty have been informed of their responsibility to disclose to the audience if they will be discussing off-label or investigational uses (any uses not approved by the FDA) of products or devices.

Additional Formats

Post-tests, credit request forms, and activity evaluations must be completed online (requires free account activation), and participants can print their certificate or statement of credit immediately (75% pass rate required). This website supports all browsers except Internet Explorer for Mac. For complete technical requirements and privacy policy, visit our Privacy & Confidentiality page.

Questions about this activity?

Call us at 877.CME.PROS (877.263.7767).


NOTE: Pharmacist CE Universal Activity Number, Enduring: 0376-0000-20-135-H01-P.



When Is Switching ART Necessary?
Event Date: 09/30/2020